What Causes Pigmentation?

Pigmentation is the brown spots or patches on the skin caused by the overproduction of melanin in the skin. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes in the lower layers of the epidermis and can be activated by exposure to sunlight.

Other common factors that can cause pigmentation include hormonal changes, pregnancy, genetics, skin trauma, and acne-induced inflammation.

Learn more about the best pigmentation treatments in Toronto below.

Types of Hyperpigmentation


Melasma is common on Asian skin. It usually appears as irregular spots of dark brown discoloration on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and even the lips. It is common in women and people with dark skin and can be exacerbated by exposure to sunlight and hormonal changes.


Freckles are small brown spots in sun-exposed areas found in genetically sensitive individuals.


Birthmarks can be brown or red. Red-coloured birthmarks are caused by local areas of abnormal blood vessels. Brown birthmarks result from localized areas of excessive pigmentation.

Sunspots / Age Spots

Sunspots, also known as age spots, are dark brown spots on the skin. They are caused by exposure to the sun and often appear on sun-exposed areas of the skin such as the face, hands, and arms.

Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

Many patients get brown spots after acne. They are also known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and are due to an overreaction of the skin’s pigment cells, which leads to more pigmentation during the healing process. PIH often occurs after other skin injuries such as cuts and burns.

Treatment Options

PicoWay® Laser Pigmentation Removal

Increased skin pigmentation can be caused by many factors, such as UV exposure, hormones, skin trauma, acne inflammation as well as genetic factors.

With PicoWay® laser pigmentation removal, the laser is drawn towards excess melanin in the skin and works to fragment the pigmented cells. By targeting only unwanted spots, the laser is able to safely reduce or eliminate blemishes on the face and body without touching the surrounding skin.

In just a few sessions, pigmentation is much less visible, leaving behind lighter, clearer skin. You may begin to see an improvement after the very first session, but 3 to 6 sessions are recommended every 4 weeks depending on the degree of sun damage or hyperpigmentation.

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Chemical Peel

A chemical peel is a topical treatment used to improve facial skin texture and tone.

An acid formula is applied to the skin to lower the pH of the skin, which helps to loosen dead skin cells, induce exfoliation and stimulate new cell growth.

The Glow Peel is a multipurpose resurfacing treatment that combines the powers of salicylic acid (7%), lactic acid (7%), resorcinol (7%), soy amino acids, and yeast-derived oligopeptide to improve the signs of aging and hyperpigmentation with less downtime.

We typically suggest this treatment to people who want to address issues like hyperpigmentation, fine lines, exfoliation, and overall rejuvenation.

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Microdermabrasion, also known as diamond peel, is one of the most popular medical aesthetic treatments these days. This cosmetic procedure can clear up your pores clogged by make-up products and dirt remaining from daily life, and improve the skin radiance immediately.

Microdermabrasion is often used to treat skin discolouration, thick old dead skin cells, and stretch marks by removing the top layer of skin.

The desired outcome of microdermabrasion is to make an individual’s complexion appear smoother, brighter, and more even in colour.

La Vitalité Med Spa is a leading provider of microdermabrasion in Toronto.

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Book your appointment or free consultation with us today!